As I mentioned in yesterday’s blog post I am working on an essay on Eternal Functional Subordination – one article that has been super helpful in understanding the historical dimension of this position has been John Starke’s “Augustine and his Interpreters,” which can be found in One God in Three Persons. For those of you who are interested in what he has to say but don’t have the book – here is an outline of the paper:
- Eternal Generation and inseparable operation undergird and support an order of authority of submission.
- Augustine and other figures in church history, from the early church to the modern era, affirms an order of authority and submission in the persons of the Trinity. (157)
- Bruce Ware says “Augustine affirmed… inherent authority of the Father and inherent submission of the Son.” (157)
- Followed by a quote from Ware
Keith E. Johnson
Keith E. Johnson offers an argument why eternal generation and inseparable operation does not allow for an order of authority and submission
- “Augustine maintains, according to Johnson, that “being sent does not imply inferiority on the part of the Son. It simply reveals that the Son is eternally from by the Father.” (159)
- Johnson claims Complementarians misinterpret Augustine as affirming an order of authority and submission in the “sent” language of Scripture.” (159)
- “Complementarians read too much into Augustine’s doctrine of eternal generation in saying that Augustine is also affirming an order of authority and submission.” (160)
- Augustine’s inseparable operation does not allow for an order of authority and submission. (160)
This essay responds to those last two claims
Calvin and Owen both argue that the Father is the beginning of deity and beginning of activity. The Father makes the authoritative designation. (164)
Even Johnson implies that if “being sent” means an order of submission and authority, then it necessitates an inferior Son. (165)
- Johnson – Complementarians sever his comments about the Father sending the Son from Augustine’s unequivocal affirmation that the divine person act inseparably. (167)
- Johnson – to hold to an order of authority and submission would break the one will of the Father and Son into two
- Johnson’s Argument (168)
- An order of authority and submission is compatible with Augustine’s inseparable operations, since the work of “sending” the Son was inseparable work fo the Father and the Son
- An order of authority and submission not only is incompatible with inseparable operation, but would divine the one will of the Father and the Son.
- Incompatibility with Augustine’s inseparable operation and division of the one will of the Father and Son would lead to a position incompatible with homoousian.
- Starke’s Replies
- The unity of operations is harmony not unison
- The will of the Son is not apart from the Father, it is a will that he shares from the Father
- Johnson is correct to assume if complementarians reject inseparable operations they reject homoousioan. However they don’t reject inseparable operations